Saturday, 9 September 2017

Economic Development



Economic Development
Economic development is very important and essential for the progress of every country. Economic development means to improve the quality of life for the mass while respecting their traditional values and beliefs. For this purpose, adequate housing, good health, clean water, sanitation, full employment are only means to guarantee a decent standard of living for our present and our future generation.
Economic development should be given first order priority. First of all government may implement overall strategies to ensure an equitable share of natural wealth and resources as natural resources are closely related to economic development. It is within the fundamental rights of nation to manage the natural resources and an equitable share in the wealth of the lands. This will enable the nation to become economically self-sufficient.
Development of Political Science in Pakistan
In Pakistan, although political science is recognized as a conventional discipline, however, it has yet to emerge as a discipline with independent base in social sciences. Its problems and prospects of growth and development need to be seem with at least three references, First the colonial legacy of the state, second the status of social sciences in the country and third lack of conductive academic environment for social research.
In the development of the countries there is an intricate relationship between the evolution of social sciences and the process of decolonisation. Analyzing the relationship on Indian scholar ''Yogesh  Atal'' has remarked.
Born together in the same historical moment, capitalism, colonialism and social sciences arrived from the west and became implanted on these countries that became colonies of the western power.
in post independence the main problem was how to redefine or restructure. This relationship so in Pakistan. Many academic programms in the field of political science were structured in such a way that they emphasized Western political thought without sufficiently taking into account the socio political realities of Pakistan state. Pakistan achieved independence but intellectual dependence persisted. In context of social sciences and with reference to political science this may be attributed to three types of constraints, firstly the lack of qualified political scientists, second inadequate attention was paid to redesign the political sciences according to the national needs.
In Pakistan political sciences is not taken as social sciences rather it is equated with history. The problem with the history of the Pakistan is that it is replete with documentation and description of events or personalities. No attention is paid to explain or analyse the social forces that generate a particular event or bring crisis and change in the national polity. political sciences in Pakistan in Particular has stunted the shadow of history.
Now if we want political sciences grow and expand as a discipline in the country then it must stand on its own legs i-e focus on concept formation theory building and simultaneously should make use of history to explore and social change in country.
Since its inception Pakistan has been confronted with political crisis, Pakistani elite have found it difficult to develop consensus. On the nature and direction of the political system. The environment of political instability and at times of political control forced political scientists to fall back on history rather then investigate the contemporary political realities of Pakistan.

Rural Development in Pakistan

More than 70% of the population of Pakistan live in rural areas. In present age, the whole world is turning into global village so in the progress of the country, development of villages and rural areas is as important as urban development. Usually the vast peasant majority, living at subsistence level is neglected in the government policies. In urban areas, facilities are more than the facilities provided to rustics.
Firstly, in rural areas medical or health care is non existent or unsatisfactory. Were health care is available, it is at the district level. Virtually they are self medicated with medicines available in the local market.
As far as education is concerned there are inadequate facilities of education. In rural areas there are no schools, colleges and universities. The education system suffers from a wide range of problems, including lack of facilities, under trained staff, lack of books and materials, low pay for teachers and an ineffective curriculum.
There is also shortage of key inputs (water control, fertilizers, improved seeds, credit and transport), inaccessibility due to very poor rural infrastructure including roads and communication. There are no markets in villages. Sometime people have to travel a lot for buying the goods of their daily needs.
Now the problem is with designing effective rural development initiatives. In this connection two things are more important. One is the issue of correctly analyzing social relations with respect to organize community development. Second is related to the lack of motivation in people and government to participate in development scheme.
First, some social development programs of rural areas are best left entirely to the national government and aid programs should directly funded by the government. Aid programs that provide funding for health, education or agricultural services should not be cut. Government should support villages and remote areas in their funds. This decision would prove positive step towards the development of rural areas.
Secondly, the most important areas are health and education. In this regard, the ministry of health and ministry of education should strengthen, its organizational structure and planning capabilities at the central level and should state goal improving care at the district level, making it more available and affordable. For both the ministry of health and ministry of education a key factor lies in their ability to pay a living wage to teachers and local health-care providers.
According to survey for the development of rural areas, there is a clear need for more local level research. Since rural villages very greatly in terms of specific conditions. It is only logical that something that works in one area may not work in another. Before plans can be drafted for a particular area, research should be done in the region to try to understand community composition and characteristics.
Thus there is a great need of specialized planning and program and if government funding and foreign development aid is to begin to reach to the 70% of population who live in rural areas. This would ensure a development life in villages.

Relevant Articles:

The economic stake
 
The immediate economic stake is access to the world's largest sources of oil and natural gas outside of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Since economic interest rather than ideological alignment is the main force underlying the rivalry alignments can be fluid. Iran and Russia are allied in their approach to Caspian and Central Asian oil, favoring Iran as the main southerly route, while Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the U.S. favor an alternate route through Afghanistan. While the Central Asian states have different international orientations, in particular toward Russia, their attitudes toward the conflict over pipeline routes are essentially pragmatic they stand to benefit from any southern export route and they have not lined up clearly on one side or the other.

What is Capitalism Economics 
Capitalism means the entrusting of the economic process of society to the guidance of the private businessman. It first developed in eighteenth century in Britain, later it was transplanted to north-western Europe and North America. From the very beginning of capitalism it has been characterized by a few basic traits

Thursday, 31 August 2017

Our Education System

Our Education System


Education means ''enlightment'' or ''acknowledgement'' it also means the development of the whole personality. All the developed countries have an organized and well planned system of education which gives their students a specefic aim and make them the honorable and cultured citizen. This is the system of education which makes its citizen good human being by their social and ethical development that is why education system should be well organized and planned.
Firstly the great failure of our education system is that there is no clarity about the medium of education Urdu and English both the languages are intermingled with each other in our many institution. That is why students are unable to comprehend both the languages and they remained confused result fully they also failed to get perception and perfection in both the languages. In our schools English is made compulsory but it is presented before students in such a wrong manner that it seems very difficult to learn.
In education curriculum has a significant importance so it should be arranged in such a manner and by those educationists who would take into account all the aspects that are necessary for the development of the whole personality such books should be included that may help our children not only in their economic life but also teach them social and moral values. The purpose of education should prepare such citizens that may able to cope with the difficulties of life in an hour of trail.
Further technical or industrial training should be the part of our education system as in coming days industrial or agricultural progress is required.
Ironically being an Islamic state in our education system religious or ethical studies are being neglected.
There is hardly one book related to the religion or (book of Islamiyat) which is being taught to the students even up to the Matric level that is why our young generation remain ignorant from the religion and its teachings that is complete code of life For the moral and social development of the students it is also necessary to make Islamiyat or books related to relation compulsory. This education should be given to the students as a first priority or on a preferable basis.
Its also pathetic that our educationist always emphasis on teachings science and language and religious or moral education is being neglected while arranging the curriculum.
Further another glaring draw back of our education system is its teachers. Teachers who are regarded as the back bone in the education system of any country. These are the teachers that may play significant role in marking he students good human being or in making them praise worthy personalities but unfortunatelv in our country teachers are not sincere to their duties at all. They just teach the course books and do not bother about the social and moral development of students.
Thus to conclude my speech I would say that education system should be well organized and according to the needs of the present time. Collective efforts are required to remove all these draw backs of our education system.
Co-Education (In Favour)
Usually it is said that co-education is a trend set by European culture. But our history shows that co-education started from the mosques of Baghdad.
I am in the favour of this co-education system, dear students because I think that education means the proper development of each and every aspect of personality. For this proper development co-education is essential.
Secondly, it provides an opportunity to both girls and boys to understand each other. This would help them in their later married life.
Moreover it is observed that males are proving better teachers as compared to the females. Another advantage of co-education is it would make girls more confidently and lessen their shy in the presence of boys.
In the favour of co-education, one group gave the argument that when boys and girls study combine then there would be competition among then. Both the sexes would try to supersede each other in education. This make their academic record more better the boys can concentrate betterly in the company of girls and the girls can also concentrate on their studies in the company of boys.
Thus I am not hesitant to say that co-education has a unmber of advantages. It is not only the need of modern era.
Co-Education (In Opposition)
As my friend has given the arguments in the favour of co-education but I am against this topic on the basis of several reasons. My friend has probably forgotten that all the problems of demoralization related to the young girls and boys are because of this co-education. Simply if we look back to the past we can see that the love affair of ''Laila'' and ''Majnoon'' started when they studied together in a school.
I am also agreed with this view that the meeting of men and women with each other is good. But we should not forget our culture and Islamic traditions. If we turn our eyes blind like Europe and America then there would be no drawback in co-education, but in our society woman's chastity is given more importance. While people kill each other only in the matter of woman. Our moral values do not permit us such kind of co-education.
It is also the result of co-education that we have girls like boys and boys like girls. There are a large number of boys who do not bother to respect the girls.
This argument that men are better teachers than the women is merely a hollow slogan. But this was true only when women were not highly educated. Now women are proving their worth in every field.
Besides this boys and girls feel hesitation while studying together. Even girls as a result of their natural hesitation cannot ask question frankly in the presence of their male class-mates. Another gearing flaw of this system is that during the studies boys can not concentrate completely on their studies and which can take them away from their aim. They would spent most of their time to win the hearts of girls. Girls also concentrate on their physical appearance. They apply makeup to such an extent that sometime it feels as they are going to some party.
Dear students! fear I have gone beyond my time still a number of drawbacks of co-education are left but I would like to sum up my speech with the words that we do not need co-education while we have sufficient separate institutions for both girls and boys so there is no need to put the chastity and virginity of our girls in a trail, thank you.

Relevant Articles:
Technical Education
In the present day of keen competition and hard struggle, general education is found to be sadly insufficient to procure for man has livelihood. Click here to continue reading.
Education For Women
Women have to play every role in the society, so there are many advantages of education for women. Click here to continue reading.  
Education Vouchers in Principle and Practice
An education voucher system exists when governments make payments to families that enable their children to enter public or private school of of their choice. Click here to continue reading.
Scientific Education
Huxley, who was a great champion of scientific education, said The position that science is now assuming is such that those who remain entirely ignorant of even its elementary facts are in a wholly unfair position as regards the world of thoughts and the world of practical life.  Science is the main ingredient in the scheme of liberal education outlined by Huxley. Click here to continue reading.

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